The Public Domain - fear of being sued

25 replies
Hi,

Do you use Public Domain materials in your business?

Have you found that you can do so safely and without getting sued?

Or is it a tricky legal nightmare? How often do you face a legal challenge?

I'd be grateful to know from people that actually use PD material.

Many thanks.

John
#domain #fear #public #sued
  • Profile picture of the author mosthost
    The only ones I use are pretty old from clearly defined sources. So far there has been no problem. That said, using Photodune (or alternatives) seems easier.
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    • Profile picture of the author John Marshall
      Many thanks, mosthost.

      Anyone else got any thoughts?

      Kind regards,

      John
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    • Profile picture of the author bizwebman
      As with everything we use now 'the attention is in the detail' and if we do use works that we did not create ourselves then you have to check to make sure it is legit.

      This can take time, but it is worth it and you will build up your own short list of good sites to go to for material.

      Public domain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

      Just search within this forum as many warriors have put up lists of good sites, depending on what you need.
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      • Profile picture of the author John Marshall
        Originally Posted by bizwebman View Post

        As with everything we use now 'the attention is in the detail' and if we do use works that we did not create ourselves then you have to check to make sure it is legit.

        This can take time, but it is worth it and you will build up your own short list of good sites to go to for material.

        Public domain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

        Just search within this forum as many warriors have put up lists of good sites, depending on what you need.
        Many thanks, bizwebman.

        I guess it's a case of knowing the rules, being careful to stick to them and taking it from there.

        John
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        • Profile picture of the author bizwebman
          Originally Posted by Higgey View Post

          Many thanks, bizwebman.

          I guess it's a case of knowing the rules, being careful to stick to them and taking it from there.

          John
          Hi John

          Yes finding the right sites out of the millions is pretty tricky and time consuming.

          The thing that works for me and many other warriors is searching in this forum & googling for the things you are after, for example 'royalty free images' and you should find some good lists.

          There is a mountain of good free stuff out there, if you cannot find it someone will know and just post for a helping hand.

          Grahame
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  • Profile picture of the author John Rogers
    The best tool I've found for researching copyright renewals (or lack of) on books is
    Copyright Renewal Database: Welcome

    I'm not well-versed in researching other mediums, so I'll leave that for the experts to comment on.

    The bottom line is that if you're concerned about legalities, you should pay the U.S. Copyright Office to do the research for you.
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    • Profile picture of the author John Marshall
      Originally Posted by John Rogers View Post

      The best tool I've found for researching copyright renewals (or lack of) on books is
      Copyright Renewal Database: Welcome

      I'm not well-versed in researching other mediums, so I'll leave that for the experts to comment on.

      The bottom line is that if you're concerned about legalities, you should pay the U.S. Copyright Office to do the research for you.
      Many thanks.

      John
      Signature
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  • Profile picture of the author Tadresources
    The thought of the nightmare of dealing with a lawsuit is definitely a prohibitive factor for me. There are so many alternatives out there that I wouldn't bother unless the payoff was 100% worth it.
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  • Profile picture of the author jpeddler
    First Higgey,

    Using PD materials to make money is very - WORTH IT. The ROI can be insanely profitable - the base materials are, after all, FREE.

    I have used them in the past to produce reworked products, compilations, get some great ideas, etc.

    For basic information on US copyrighted products, go to U.S. Copyright Office. Also use the source John gave you above.

    My primary reference source regarding PD law is:

    The Public Domain: How to Find and Use Copyright-Free Writings, Music, Art & More (Paperback) by Stephen Fishman, Attorney

    I AM NOT an attorney, but he clearly is. Right now, you can jump over to Amazon.com and older versions of the book are priced at 49 cents plus $4 shipping - a steal.

    I wouldn't wait to get over there and buy it - I am sure others are reading this too.

    I don't know what revision of the book is at this price, but the most current is a Fifth Edition and costs upwards of $30 US.

    As far as what is in the PD - Generally, if it was printed, produced, etc. before 1923, it is. However, the laws are very complicated both here and in the UK.

    Here is an example of a "gotcha": A photo may be in the PD, but a trademarked image in the photo (another entirely different set of laws) prevents you from having "free use" of that image - without obtaining the permission of the trademark owner.

    Anyway, a copy of this book is on my shelf and often referred to when I deal with PD. I encourage you to do the same.

    If it is a project you are going to do and roll-out on a large scale or spend a lot of time developing, have the copyright researched before moving forward. Doing so will save you time and grief.

    Copyright law exists to protect intellectual property. The problem is: anyone can sue anyone for anything - anytime they want to do it.

    One last thing - beware of people that claim copyright for an item that is in the exact form in which it exists in the PD. There are copyright "bullies" that will send you a "Cease and Desist" notification when they have no basis or right to claim ownership or copyright. Often, they are misinformed as to what they have produced.

    This happens all the time. Works reproduced exactly as they exist in the public domain can not have copyrights renewed, especially by other individuals. Merely changing the cover on "Tom Sawyer" does not give anyone the right to claim ownership or authorship of the text within a bright, shiny new cover.

    However, if they put a new cover on the book, the image on the cover can be copyrighted. They can even place a copyright symbol next to the image - this would lead most to believe the entire book is copyrighted - it is not and cannot be copyrighted. This is just some publishing (sleight of hand).

    (Yes, I know - it is crazy dealing with this stuff!)

    They can sell as many copies as they like, but they cannot claim copyright over the text of the book - if left unchanged or even slightly modified. And most are too lazy or indifferent to substantively change a classic.

    When in doubt - if you remain unsure - always seek legal counsel.

    Whatever, DO NOT let fear of being sued stop you. If you do just a modicum of due diligence - you can make a lot of money with PD and never worry about being sued. Law suits over public domain disputes are much rarer than you may think.

    Incidentally - just for grins - two of the greatest users of PD materials that got wealthy beyond belief:

    Walt Disney and Ted Turner
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    • Profile picture of the author John Marshall
      Originally Posted by jpeddler View Post

      First Higgey,

      Using PD materials to make money is very - WORTH IT. The ROI can be insanely profitable - the base materials are, after all, FREE.

      I have used them in the past to produce reworked products, compilations, get some great ideas, etc.

      For basic information on US copyrighted products, go to U.S. Copyright Office. Also use the source John gave you above.

      My primary reference source regarding PD law is:

      The Public Domain: How to Find and Use Copyright-Free Writings, Music, Art & More (Paperback) by Stephen Fishman, Attorney

      I AM NOT an attorney, but he clearly is. Right now, you can jump over to Amazon.com and older versions of the book are priced at 49 cents plus $4 shipping - a steal.

      I wouldn't wait to get over there and buy it - I am sure others are reading this too.

      I don't know what revision of the book is at this price, but the most current is a Fifth Edition and costs upwards of $30 US.

      As far as what is in the PD - Generally, if it was printed, produced, etc. before 1923, it is. However, the laws are very complicated both here and in the UK.

      Here is an example of a "gotcha": A photo may be in the PD, but a trademarked image in the photo (another entirely different set of laws) prevents you from having "free use" of that image - without obtaining the permission of the trademark owner.

      Anyway, a copy of this book is on my shelf and often referred to when I deal with PD. I encourage you to do the same.

      If it is a project you are going to do and roll-out on a large scale or spend a lot of time developing, have the copyright researched before moving forward. Doing so will save you time and grief.

      Copyright law exists to protect intellectual property. The problem is: anyone can sue anyone for anything - anytime they want to do it.

      One last thing - beware of people that claim copyright for an item that is in the exact form in which it exists in the PD. There are copyright "bullies" that will send you a "Cease and Desist" notification when they have no basis or right to claim ownership or copyright. Often, they are misinformed as to what they have produced.

      This happens all the time. Works reproduced exactly as they exist in the public domain can not have copyrights renewed, especially by other individuals. Merely changing the cover on "Tom Sawyer" does not give anyone the right to claim ownership or authorship of the text within a bright, shiny new cover.

      However, if they put a new cover on the book, the image on the cover can be copyrighted. They can even place a copyright symbol next to the image - this would lead most to believe the entire book is copyrighted - it is not and cannot be copyrighted. This is just some publishing (sleight of hand).

      (Yes, I know - it is crazy dealing with this stuff!)

      They can sell as many copies as they like, but they cannot claim copyright over the text of the book - if left unchanged or even slightly modified. And most are too lazy or indifferent to substantively change a classic.

      When in doubt - if you remain unsure - always seek legal counsel.

      Whatever, DO NOT let fear of being sued stop you. If you do just a modicum of due diligence - you can make a lot of money with PD and never worry about being sued. Law suits over public domain disputes are much rarer than you may think.

      Incidentally - just for grins - two of the greatest users of PD materials that got wealthy beyond belief:

      Walt Disney and Ted Turner
      Hi jpeddler,

      What a fantastic post! Thank you for taking the time to respond and give me so much information. I really am grateful because I can see the potential of Public Domain but I am very concerned about making an error and getting sued. On top of that, there is the case of Richard O'Dwyer this week (BBC News - Richard O'Dwyer case: TVShack creator's US extradition approved) and he didn't even have copyrighted material, he just linked to it. I know his case is a lot different but it certainly put the frighteners on me. I have a wife and children and I don't like the thought of being sued nor being extradited at the drop of a hat!

      I appreciate your points, though. Thanks for the advice about the copyright book. They are available here in the UK on amazon. Am I OK to buy an older version? They are a lot cheaper but can I rely on it?

      Anyway, you've done enough to make me reconsider things and for that I am most, most grateful. I'd almost decided to walk away from PD but I'll give it some more thought.

      Thanks again.

      Kind regards,

      Joohn
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  • Profile picture of the author seasoned
    Originally Posted by Higgey View Post

    Hi,

    Do you use Public Domain materials in your business?

    Have you found that you can do so safely and without getting sued?

    Or is it a tricky legal nightmare? How often do you face a legal challenge?

    I'd be grateful to know from people that actually use PD material.

    Many thanks.

    John
    You want to avoid using PD materials? You better stop using your computer!

    HECK, yahoo has some "patents" that basically say it is illegal to use the WWW, and a lot of other software! OOOPS! Don't worry though, Yahoo is only attacking FACEBOOK......FOR NOW!

    Steve
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  • Profile picture of the author Exel
    You should use materials from proven public domain sites only. That way you greatly
    reduce the chances of facing legal action.

    In the unlikely case that happens, in 99% of cases the copyright holder will approach
    and ask you to remove copyrighted material before taking expensive and lengthy
    lawsuit. If that happens, you conform and everything's fine.
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    • Profile picture of the author John Marshall
      Originally Posted by Exel View Post

      You should use materials from proven public domain sites only. That way you greatly
      reduce the chances of facing legal action.

      In the unlikely case that happens, in 99% of cases the copyright holder will approach
      and ask you to remove copyrighted material before taking expensive and lengthy
      lawsuit. If that happens, you conform and everything's fine.
      Thank you. I appreciate the post and your advice and encouragement.

      Kind regards,

      John
      Signature
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  • Profile picture of the author jpeddler
    I sort of agree with Exel. Although truthfully, PD materials can be found anywhere – I would extend his statement a bit, and make sure the source you seek to use as the basis for the work you want to produce is definitely in the PD.

    Example:

    Let’s use the Tom Sawyer example above. If you use the original Mark Twain book (and this is key) to produce your derivative, compilation or any other sort of work, you will be fine.

    The moment you use a derivative work based on a subsequent re-written work authored by another writer and changed substantially enough to base a new copyright on – you’ve violated the copyright on the new work. The moment the work becomes questionable, you are at risk.

    However, there are other realities I will talk about in a moment.

    I have a 2001 copy of the book I mentioned to you. As with many books that are based on law, few changes have taken place since 2001. I would purchase the same book all over again if I needed to do so.

    The case you cited in your post is an example of the realities of the harshness of copyright law.

    There are generally three unpardonable acts you can commit when using copyrighted material deliberately or without considering it carefully. These will cause copyright holders to chase and sue you:

    1. Did you make any substantial amount of money on the work? If yes, you can and may be sued. No money earned = why bother? Law suits for copyright infringement are expensive. No one will sue if there is no money to be gained through the process. These law suits are unlike the kinds you hear about most often, where attorneys get a percentage of the award.

    2. If the young man in the article, through his actions, caused the copyright owner a substantial loss because of interrupting an earnings stream or revenue source, they will again likely sue.

    3. If through using the copyrighted material, he caused the copyright holder a loss of face, corrupted the value of his work or diluted the saleability of it, this is the best way to recover losses. The copyright holder once again, may decide suing you is the way to clear their name and re-establish the validity and value of their work.

    At least the first condition applies to him. I do not know about the second or third.

    As a professional writer and self-publisher – I can huff and puff all I want to about my copyrighted work being shared on a file sharing site. I can slap a copyright notice on every page – it doesn’t matter. Proving who did the sharing can be dicey – at best. And what happens if they live in a foreign country?

    The reality is: unless someone can be found and then made accountable for the sharing of thousands of copies of my work – it simply isn’t worth it. If a few dozen or hundred are shared, that’s life and my tough luck.

    I will file a DCMA and I can slow it down, but I cannot stop it. And policing it would require full-time staff to search for new postings daily – again, not worth it.

    The cost to sue someone for copyright infringement – even in the US begins in the low six-figures.

    It isn’t worth this amount of money or my time in most cases – and theft will happen no matter how vehemently I disapprove.

    Here’s my opinion – and it is only an opinion – based on many years of studying this:

    Copyright law is always about money first. It was law enacted to provide a legal mechanism for an individual or company with means to sue someone that got into their pockets and recover what they believe are their losses.

    Sometimes they are right – sometimes they aren’t.

    It enables one rich guy to sue another rich guy that benefited in some way because of the first rich guy’s work and recover what they believe they are owed - plus legal costs.

    Like most laws – this is no different: money is at the root of the cause of action or inaction of the parties involved.

    The gentleman in the UK just got unlucky by making money through providing a service he thought was of value to his readers. He just didn’t think about all the possible ramifications of his actions.

    Even more than doing due diligence - if you use good common sense – you will be fine. There are 100s of millions of works in the public domain – but do you want to know the crazy part?

    They haven’t all been found yet!

    So go and find a good PD work - be creative and make some money.

    Go get an original H.G. Wells copy of “War of the Worlds” and tell the story from the alien’s point of view. Working with PD isn’t difficult or even risky – just tell your story originally – everything else takes care of itself.

    Good hunting!

    Jake
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    • Profile picture of the author John Marshall
      Originally Posted by jpeddler View Post

      I sort of agree with Exel. Although truthfully, PD materials can be found anywhere - I would extend his statement a bit, and make sure the source you seek to use as the basis for the work you want to produce is definitely in the PD.

      Example:

      Let's use the Tom Sawyer example above. If you use the original Mark Twain book (and this is key) to produce your derivative, compilation or any other sort of work, you will be fine.

      The moment you use a derivative work based on a subsequent re-written work authored by another writer and changed substantially enough to base a new copyright on - you've violated the copyright on the new work. The moment the work becomes questionable, you are at risk.

      However, there are other realities I will talk about in a moment.

      I have a 2001 copy of the book I mentioned to you. As with many books that are based on law, few changes have taken place since 2001. I would purchase the same book all over again if I needed to do so.

      The case you cited in your post is an example of the realities of the harshness of copyright law.

      There are generally three unpardonable acts you can commit when using copyrighted material deliberately or without considering it carefully. These will cause copyright holders to chase and sue you:

      1. Did you make any substantial amount of money on the work? If yes, you can and may be sued. No money earned = why bother? Law suits for copyright infringement are expensive. No one will sue if there is no money to be gained through the process. These law suits are unlike the kinds you hear about most often, where attorneys get a percentage of the award.

      2. If the young man in the article, through his actions, caused the copyright owner a substantial loss because of interrupting an earnings stream or revenue source, they will again likely sue.

      3. If through using the copyrighted material, he caused the copyright holder a loss of face, corrupted the value of his work or diluted the saleability of it, this is the best way to recover losses. The copyright holder once again, may decide suing you is the way to clear their name and re-establish the validity and value of their work.

      At least the first condition applies to him. I do not know about the second or third.

      As a professional writer and self-publisher - I can huff and puff all I want to about my copyrighted work being shared on a file sharing site. I can slap a copyright notice on every page - it doesn't matter. Proving who did the sharing can be dicey - at best. And what happens if they live in a foreign country?

      The reality is: unless someone can be found and then made accountable for the sharing of thousands of copies of my work - it simply isn't worth it. If a few dozen or hundred are shared, that's life and my tough luck.

      I will file a DCMA and I can slow it down, but I cannot stop it. And policing it would require full-time staff to search for new postings daily - again, not worth it.

      The cost to sue someone for copyright infringement - even in the US begins in the low six-figures.

      It isn't worth this amount of money or my time in most cases - and theft will happen no matter how vehemently I disapprove.

      Here's my opinion - and it is only an opinion - based on many years of studying this:

      Copyright law is always about money first. It was law enacted to provide a legal mechanism for an individual or company with means to sue someone that got into their pockets and recover what they believe are their losses.

      Sometimes they are right - sometimes they aren't.

      It enables one rich guy to sue another rich guy that benefited in some way because of the first rich guy's work and recover what they believe they are owed - plus legal costs.

      Like most laws - this is no different: money is at the root of the cause of action or inaction of the parties involved.

      The gentleman in the UK just got unlucky by making money through providing a service he thought was of value to his readers. He just didn't think about all the possible ramifications of his actions.

      Even more than doing due diligence - if you use good common sense - you will be fine. There are 100s of millions of works in the public domain - but do you want to know the crazy part?

      They haven't all been found yet!

      So go and find a good PD work - be creative and make some money.

      Go get an original H.G. Wells copy of "War of the Worlds" and tell the story from the alien's point of view. Working with PD isn't difficult or even risky - just tell your story originally - everything else takes care of itself.

      Good hunting!

      Jake
      Hi Jake,

      Once again, I am indebted to you for taking so much time and sharing such valuable information. The mists are beginning to clear!

      I shall purchase the book and study it. Hopefully, this will give me the confidence to pursue Public Domain as a method I can use.

      Once again, Jake, many, many thanks for your time and trouble.

      Kind regards,

      John
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  • Profile picture of the author Chris Lockwood
    I think the lawsuits happen when you use material that is not public domain.
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    • Profile picture of the author jpeddler
      Originally Posted by Chris Lockwood View Post

      I think the lawsuits happen when you use material that is not public domain.
      Oh, I don’t know about that Chris.

      Lawsuits really boil down to money, ego, disagreements and people not being able to resolve them among each other – and definitely occasionally about intellectual trespassing and outright theft.

      Literary lawsuits are rarely about PD books, images, songs or other issues.

      Example:

      Let’s use a movie that scared the beans out of many people (including me) and was thoroughly entertaining:

      “Silence of the Lambs”

      This is copyrighted in more ways we can count, right?

      Riveting performances were delivered by Sir Anthony Hopkins as Hannibal Lector and Jodie Foster as Agent Clarice Starling – impossible to copy or do it any better, correct?

      Only I can take the premise – and only the premise – and make it nothing like the original. This is a copyrighted property, but even so, I can take the idea and change it completely – 180 degrees.

      And it will be my original work. – let me explain:

      What happens if I take the story and introduce a new killer – one that wasn’t Lector? What happens if I add characters, change the entire story, eliminate Agent Starling or develop another female lead character?

      How about making Lector a woman – instead of a man? And making him a hero instead of the super villain?

      Then, we can really go nuts – how about making it into a Broadway musical instead of a film at all?

      Only let’s go farther – let’s make it a Broadway COMEDY musical.

      This is no longer the movie we loved to get scared by – we are laughing now. The entire intent and story has changed. There are new characters, new villains.

      Hell, we could take Agent Starling’s character and make her the surprise killer.

      Long story – short – I make it a completely original production. But I base it on a proven winner – an idea and movie that made hundreds of millions of dollars.

      And this is not even a PD consideration – it is only a little over 20 years old and completely protected by copyrights, right?

      This would be a lot of work, but difficult?

      Nope – a proverbial walk in the park.

      I could even still call it “Silence of the Lambs” because titles do not have copyright protection.

      Now, let’s take an entirely different medium – music.

      For years - Madonna has been feuding with Lady Gaga. She claims Gaga has plagiarized lyrics, rhythms, and entire songs. Only the quarrel is so artistically subjective that neither will sue the other.

      Instead they do a very smart thing – they curse each other in public and the media. They each still win because of the overwhelming publicity.

      I do not think Madonna would have gotten her Super Bowl gig if not for this being such a public, fierce quarrel. And Gaga would not be making millions off the songs she has stolen from Madonna.

      Both win – and yet the perception is that both are being catty and hate each other. This is handling artistic differences AND copyrights over music creatively – and profitably. For all we know, they may privately talk daily – they may be blood buddies.

      (Incidentally, since I don’t believe in neutrality – I agree with Madonna.)

      So – even though this discussion is about getting sued over PD – I don’t sweat getting sued even a little when I work with ANY kind of content, but especially PD stuff.

      My skills lay in my abilities to take anything and completely reshape and re-purpose it – and I am damn good at what I do – if I do say so myself.

      I can take a book – ANY book – and given enough time, I can make it unrecognizable even to the original author. The same applies to most any piece of content you can think of.

      And this is precisely what some clients ask me to do as a professional ghostwriter.

      It WILL BE a new work – an original, copyrightable work.

      This happens every day! If I am not doing it, someone just like me is doing it.

      Most of you aren’t familiar with the Adam’s Family – the TV series from the 60’s. It is being done almost exactly as I described above, as a Broadway comedy musical – and the series, characters and scripts were/are still protected by copyrights.

      It’s a Broadway mega-hit – and no one has or will complain about anything having to do with the new production.

      The world of artistic, literary, musical and photographs, etc. - and copyrights is not as clear as we would like to believe it is. In fact, it is awfully muddled.

      What the guys that make bank with PD materials don’t (or won’t) tell you is that you are only in remotely risky territory if you only rewrite or re-purpose 30%-50% of the content - or don't give it new life at all.

      The best will rewrite 50%-70% - or more.

      Me – I am totally nuts - I make it 100% unrecognizable - to anyone. 50%, 60%, 90% - I do whatever is called for. This is what they pay me to do.

      As a top professional ghostwriter - I make sure it is done right.
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    • Profile picture of the author seasoned
      Originally Posted by Chris Lockwood View Post

      I think the lawsuits happen when you use material that is not public domain.
      DON'T bet on it!

      1. People have been SUCCESSFULLY sued for copying info that can not POSSIBLY have ANY proprietary content!!!!! HOW? Order, format, or some identifying characteristic, EVEN if it is an address, mistake, or some term.

      2. People have been SUCCCESSFULLY sued for copying FREELY released original code! A good example is GIF! GIF had compression that used a method that has really been known for millenia, but the directory followed the format of an implementation in a PD product in UNIX. Somehow, they claimed ownership years after it became popular.

      3. HECK, look at the STUPID patents they have issued!

      4. Besides, as mentioned earlier, there is the idea of a DERIVATIVE work! "HEAVEN CAN WAIT" was based on a previous work. The guy was killed differently, reacted differently, etc... but the basic story was the SAME, even much of the dialog was the same. The first movie might be freely copyable, but the new one couldn't be.

      Steve
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      • Profile picture of the author jpeddler
        Originally Posted by seasoned View Post

        DON'T bet on it!

        1. People have been SUCCESSFULLY sued for copying info that can not POSSIBLY have ANY proprietary content!!!!! HOW? Order, format, or some identifying characteristic, EVEN if it is an address, mistake, or some term.

        2. People have been SUCCCESSFULLY sued for copying FREELY released original code! A good example is GIF! GIF had compression that used a method that has really been known for millenia, but the directory followed the format of an implementation in a PD product in UNIX. Somehow, they claimed ownership years after it became popular.

        3. HECK, look at the STUPID patents they have issued!

        4. Besides, as mentioned earlier, there is the idea of a DERIVATIVE work! "HEAVEN CAN WAIT" was based on a previous work. The guy was killed differently, reacted differently, etc... but the basic story was the SAME, even much of the dialog was the same. The first movie might be freely copyable, but the new one couldn't be.

        Steve

        On Target Steve!

        The top 4 ways to re-purpose, maximize the use of public domain materials, and coincidentally defeat perceived or real copyright challenges are:

        1. Derivative Works
        2. Compilations
        3. Critiques & Reviews
        4. Parodies

        But as I said early on: anyone - anywhere - can sue anyone - for anything - at anytime.

        A lawsuit can literally be filed by someone that got-up on the wrong side of the bed and is ticked-off at the world. The only reason anyone needs to have is some morose sense of entitlement - even if the subject of the lawsuit has little or nothing to do with them.

        And yes, lawsuits - even frivolous ones - are won every day. I left out one of the most highly motivating factors for copyright lawsuits that are filed:

        Greed

        Jake
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        • Profile picture of the author John Marshall
          Thanks everyone.

          Lots of food for thought.

          I'm just waiting for my broker to come back to me with the cost of Professional Indemnity Cover. Think I'll take out a policy just to be on the safe side!

          Kindest regards to all,

          John
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          • Profile picture of the author John Marshall
            I've just opened my copy of The Public Domain by Stephen Fishman and I am about to start studying it.

            I may be a little while.....

            Kind regards,

            John
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  • Profile picture of the author Hentie
    Well that was quite an in depth discussion by warrior jpeddler. As he basically said "Even more than doing due diligence - if you use good common sense – you will be fine." It is like walking across the street, nothing is perfectly safe but you cannot stay indoors all the time!

    Thanks for all the insights
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