I saw this online and thought it would be useful for those looking for a start point for learning SEO, straight from Google itself.
This document was originally written for Google employees to better understand SEO. So it should be pretty useful. Treat it is a launch guide. Start from here, cruise the SEO discussion forum and ask questions as you go.
NB - Not all info on this document is current (shock horror!) so one helpful way to keep tabs on SEO updates is to follow Matt Cutt's blog. Matt works for Google so he's worth following:
Matt Cutts: Gadgets, Google, and SEO